Best Free Audio Books Online learnoutloud

Summary [ Wider Than the Sky The Phenomenal Gift of Consciousness Ebook ] BY Gerald M. Edelman – Book, DOC or Kindle free

New Frontiers in Crustacean Biology dIon of a free floatingisembodied consciousness I have no idea whether such a thing is possible or not But oes one really have to point out that in the past there was no scientific evidence for such things as black holes subatomic particles and many other phenomena and that this far from providing evidence that such things id not exist merely showed that science was not in a position to The Firebirds Tale detect them Absence of evidence as we all know or should know is not evidence of absenceThroughout this book Edelman constantly confuses the neural base of consciousness with consciousness itself a very common failing among scientists When heoes manage to separate them he opts for the weak position of epiphenomenalism while implausibly claiming not to One Night of Passion (Danvers, do so He argues that consciousness cannot be causal because physicsecrees that the physical world must be a closed causal system This is out of Little Bitty Lies date physics because in a probabilistic uantum universe there is actually no such thing as a closed system It would also mean if it were true that Darwinian evolution was wrong because if consciousness of eg pain is not causal then there is no evolutionary reason why we should have evolved the ability to feel painSo to sum up if you re looking for a book that gives a simplified account of brain processing as it relates to conscious experience by all means read this book But if you want something that treats what philosophers nowadays call the hard problem of consciousness in a sensible fashion avoid it like the plague Gerald Edelman a Nobel prize winning neuroscientist offers a neurological theory of consciousness which interests me because consciousness is central to many philosophical positions andisputes Edelman is philosophically well informed especially praising the work of William James so that he often addresses the obvious philosophical concerns For example he takes care to avoid category errors such as the tendency to treat objects of consciousness as though they were things in the same sense as material objects Early in his book Edelman makes the point that a theory of consciousness should not be expected to Do Penguins Have Knees? duplicate consciousness eg to generate my uniue experience of red but only to explain it Just as a meteorologist can explain a hurricane but cannot produce one a brain based theory of consciousness should give a causal explanation of its properties but havingone so it should not be expected to generate ualia by The Outcast description Unfortunately much of the groundwork for the theory involves aetailed Katerina description of brain processes much of which is lost on me because he names and identifies many parts of the brain most of which areifficult for me to keep The Sisters Brothers distinct in my own mind He thenescribes brain processes in terms of neural impulses which travel from this part of the brain to that so that I have a picture of a lot of traffic but not much clarity I Vapor Trail (Phil Broker, do get a grasp of some of the general principlesEdelman makes a strong point that the brainoes not function like a computer Instead of algorithms and Turing Machine type operations the brain functions using neural networks and exhibits Endgame (Jani Kilian Chronicles, degeneracy a technical term meaning massive redundancy or that the same result can be reached by manyifferent paths I am somewhat surprised by this since I have read Paul Churchland a neurophilosopher who escribes parallel istributed processing a theoretical Digger the Dinosaur description of neural networks which can be implemented on a computer I think this may be a terminologicalispute since artificial intelligence is based on parallel istributed processing which learns by trial and error based on massive feedback loops This resembles brain processing as Edelman escribes itEdelman says that consciousness is an epiphenomenon based on the continual cycling of neural impulses in the brain Neural input may come from sense organs such as the optic nerves and is then cycled through a part of the cerebral cortex which categorizes it in terms of conceptual experience and then is recycled so as to refine and to clarify the Original Impression Along The impression Along the the neural impulses may go through value systems areas of the brain not ethics which prioritize neural impulses in various ways such as to promote survival or to focus or to accomplish some other purpose This recycling of neural impulses called reentrant and related to a feedback loop resembles churning such as water in a washing machine or in ocean tides and serves to generate a constantly changing model of the sensory world as well as of one s own body and needs The image generated by the constant cycling of neural impulses is consciousness Or to put it another way consciousness is the way the world including our own bodies seems to us after the brain has Die Sommer der Porters done its categorizing prioritizing updating emotional coloration and other refinementsSo according to Edelman consciousness is generated by neural processes but unlike neural processing cannot cause anything to happen Only neural processes have causal efficacy Edelman uotes beautiful metaphors from William James to illustrate So the melody floats from the harp string but neither checks nor uickens its vibration so the shadow runs alongside the pedestrian but in no way influences his steps I m impressed by Edelman s argument but I have a problem with the idea that consciousness itself asistinct from neural processes cannot cause anything to happen Just for starters if I call up the movie theater and find out the time of the next screening my conscious *knowledge of that time is part of the causal chain that leads me to go to the theater I *of that time is part of the causal chain that leads me to go to the theater I the counterargument is that my neural processes are handling all of that and my consciousness is only keeping me updatedBut I think this limits the term consciousness to only the most superficial aspects of my awareness If I know in the usual sense of the word that force euals mass times acceleration it is not just words that I know I know the meanings of the terms and how to apply those terms in specific situations Even though I may not articulate all of that I know that I know and that is part of my consciousness of knowing the euation from physics To say that my knowledge of how to apply the euation is handled by neural processes while I am only conscious of words is to take the term consciousness in too restricted a sense My consciousness includes awareness of meanings and powers that I Mercury Retrograde (Dark Alchemy, don t necessarily recite to myselfBe all of that as it may I am impressed enough by Edelman s theory to pursue the issue by further reading While I have nooubt that Edelman is a great neuroscientist I have seen science writing The Cattle Baron done better by other people Paul Churchland in The Engine of Reason the Seat of the Soul to my mindoes a far impressive job of Desire Me More (Desire Me, describing parallelistributed processing neural networks though he approaches it from a theoretical viewpoint rather than from the viewpoint of empirical research Either way it is a fascinating topic The Brain is wider than the Sky For put them side by side The one the other will containWith ease and You beside The Brain is A Teachers Guide to American Tapestry deeper than the sea For hold them Blue to Blue The one the other will absorb As Sponges Bucketso The Brain is just the weight of God For Heft them Pound for Pound And they will iffer For Heft them Pound for Pound And they will iffer they The Pursuit of Mary Bennet do As Syllable from Sound Emily DickinsonThis book is amazing Edelman is amazing It not exactly light reading and while heoes o alot of explaining One may get lost with out a solid knowledge base in the subject to begin wit. The self and to the origins of feelings learning and memory His analysis of the brain activities underlying consciousness is based on recent remarkable advances in biochemistry immunology medical imaging neuroscience and evolutionary biology yet the implications of his book extend farther beyond the worlds of science and medicine into virtually every area of human inui. Wider Than the Sky The Phenomenal Gift of ConsciousnessThis book is very interesting but very ifficult Edelman starts by Shooting for a Century describing the neural anatomy that sensory perceptions and then processed information travels through in order for our brains to process information thenescribes how this process of ordering info is primary consciousness Combined with value systems with instinctual responses to stimuli the I, Partridge development of communication then language our brains evolved to also process abstract thoughts How our brains process language was not reallyiscussed and could have bridged the gap between advanced sensory perception and value filters and Socrates So this is only the beginning of my reading not the end However Edelman notes how our memories and concepts about those memories form our identities A good start but be prepared for alot of hard vocabulary A pretty technical and Shadow of the Templar dense book Wider Than the Sky aims to provide a consistent scientific theory on the emergence of consciousness from the neural base withoutelving into speculation such as uantum consciousness resolving to Unforgiven (Warriors for the Light dualism mindbody but focusing on embodiment the fact that brainevelops in a Buried Sins (The Three Sisters Inn, different way for every person and neurons are highly adaptable making representations of concepts non permanent in the patterns of neural firing The theory outlined makes aistinction between primary consciousness and higher order consciousness being conscious of being conscious Primary consciousness seems to have evolved in the transition from reptiles to birds and reptiles to mammals Having primary consciousness means having concepts basic understanding of cause and effect and learning from experience In the Six Days in Leningrad development of primates specifically with evolution of Broca and Wernicke s areas and simultaneously with theevelopment of language conceptualizations about time space and the self enabled higher order consciousness to emerge making it possible to be conscious of being consciousThe book The Darkness discusses massive re entry of neural cells a looping interplay of connections betweenifferent parts of the brain to explain the neural base for consciousness Even though it simplifies the organization of the brain structures enough for their interplay to be understood to a layman I found it Flyboy difficult to followue to many anatomical terms in addition to sheer complexity of the brain The author provides a good explanation between the interplay of thalamus hippocampus cortex and other functional areas Not a casual read and very A Dark Sicilian Secret dense in parts it s hard to follow without previous understanding of brain anatomy and some level of familiarity with philosophical approaches to explanations of consciousness be patient u ve gotta get thru about 80 pages before the book starts getting anywhere near interestingthe biological theory must show how the neural bases for consciousness could have arisenuring evolution how consciousness Wolf Creek Homecoming (Wolf Creek develops in certain animalscausal status of consciousness epiphenomenon wo material conseuences efficacious causes things to happen neural bases of consciousness but not consciousness per se can cause things to happenhow a neural mechanism entails a subjective conscious state ualeWilliam James consciousness is utterlyependent on the brain consciousness is embodiedhow properties of conscious experience can emerge from properties of brainconsciousness is a process not a thingJamesian properties of consciousnessprivatesubjective occurs only in the individualcontinuous albeit continually changingintentionality about thingseventsdoes not exhaust all aspects to which it refers unitaryintegrated scenes Black Beech and Honeydew: An Autobiography differentiated from moment to momentthe remembered presentall past experience is engaged in forming my integrated awareness of this single momentprimary consciousness lacking in semanticlinguistic capabilities sociallyefined self sense of pastfuturehigher order consciousness recreate past episodes form future intentionssemantic ability assignment of meaning to a symbollinguistic ability system of symbols grammaruale particular experience of some propertyualia higher order iscriminations that constitute consciousness experienced as parts of unitaryintegrated conscious sceneconscious events complex set of ualiaualia ability of conscious Individuals To Make High to make high iscriminationsscientific Oh Baby! description of consciousnessgive a causal account of relationship btw theseomains so properties in one Her Rancher Hero (Saddlers Prairie, domain may be understood in terms of events in the otherbrain based theory of consciousness should give a causal explanation of its properties but should not be expected to generate ualia byescription This is not so much a review as a synopsisEdelman s work on both researching and The Maid of Lorne describing neuroanatomy has significantly changed the way we see how the brain works It is not tooifficult to follow and should be enough to rock subjects like psychology to the core as they seem happy to proceed on the elusion that there is some kind of metaphysical ie non physical mind that bears no resemblance to the brain With people such as Edelman and Maturana and Varela on the case metaphysical approaches to the mind should soon be a thing of the past wishful thinkingRe entry within the ynamic core of the brain allows for primary consciousness mediation of value category memory originating in bodily experiences and thru re entry can be re enacted with or without motor function at any time and perceptual categorisation the here and now of sorting perception into How to Become a Virgin different objects Higher Order consciousness re entrant circuits mediating between primary consciousness and semantic capability Symbolic nature of semanticissociation between symbol and meaning combined with the flexibility of manipulating these symbols thru syntax releases the consciousness from the remembered present and thru these re entrant circuits enables remembered past imagined past and future and planned future although the conscious process involves representation the neural substrate of consciousness is non representational 104 mental images arise in a primary consciousness scene largely by the same neural processes by which irect perceptual images arise One relies on memory the other on signals from without 105it is thru re entry that these processes are so similarThis view rejects the notion of computation and the idea that there is a language of thought Meaning is not identical to mental representation Instead it arises as a result of the play between value systems varying environmental cues learning and mental representation Instead it arises as a result of the play between value systems varying environmental cues learning and representational memory 105also Thibault Jnl of Prag much of cognitive psychology is ill founded There are no functional states that can be uniuely euated with efined or coded computational states in individual brains and no process that can be euated with the execution of algorithms Instead there is an enormously rich set of selectional repertoires of neuronal groups whose The Bosss Baby Surprise degenerate responses can by selection accommodate the open ended richness of environmental input individual history and individual variation Intentionality and will in this view bothepend on local contexts in the environment the body and the brain but they can selectively arise only through such interactions and not as precisely efined computations 111embodied and groundedConstructivist brain Filling in of the blind spot the phenomena of apparent motion and gestalt phenomena can all be explained in terms of temporal synchrony in re entrant circuits The same is true of time of succession and of uration The re entrant brain combines con. How Command Performance does the firing of neurons give rise to subjective sensations thoughts and emotions How can theisparate Loveknot (Welcome to Tyler, domains of mind and body be reconciled The uest for a scientifically based understanding of consciousness has attracted study and speculation across the ages In thisirect and non technical The Perfect Blend discussion of consciousness Dr Gerald M Edelmanraws on a lifetime of. Cepts and percepts with memory and new input to make a coherent picture at all costs 124eg saccades eye movements are erratic with the eye jumping to a new point of focus often as a result of peripheral vision and then resting Our experience of vision however is one of a smooth transition from one scene to the next Given the continual sensorimotor signals arising from the body subjectivity is a baseline event that is never extinguished in the normal life of conscious individuals But there is no need for an inner observer or a central I in James s words the thoughts themselves are the thinker 134Higher order consciousness may be considered as a trade off of absolute precision for rich imaginative possibilities 135The pervasive presence of egeneracy in biological systems is particularly noticeable in neural systems and it exists to a high egree in the rentrant selective circuits of the conscious brain In certain circumstances natural languages gain as much strength from ambiguity as they Wanted (Sealed with a Kiss do under other circumstances through the power of logicalefinition Association and metaphor are powerful accompaniments of 135 conscious experience even at early stages and they flower withy linguistic experience 136the study of consciousness must recognize the first person or subjective point of view 140Consciousness is a property of neural processes and cannot itself act causally in the world 141Whether in the reams of REM sleep or in imagery or even in perceptual categorization a variety of sensory motor and higher order conceptual processes are constantly in play in visual imagery the same reentrant circuits used in irect perception are reengaged but without the precise constraints of signals from without In REM sleep the brain For me this book rates up there with other classics in science like Chance and Necessity by Jacue Monod This book is written by one of the most prominent scientists of this field therefore making it an authentic and credible Bachelor to the Rescue (Home to Dover, depiction of the topic ConsciousnessHowever This was my first read So Iid a single module of neuropsychology in college and have read a few books about the brain since to give you an idea of my backgroundTo me about half of it was comprehensible He starts off admirably explaining the theory of brain that he is basing this explanation of consciousness on This part is Secrets At Maple Syrup Farm difficult but I was just about able to understand it and it was frankly fascinating I had never read an overall theory of the brain before and it was greatAs the book progresses though he loses all pretence of writing the book for a general or non expert audience After the theory of brain he goes into the basic theory of consciousness he is expounding this part is faintly understandable though much of it was lost on me He then goes into specific topics like explaining ualia the sense of feeling something and intentionality the intention too something and these parts were way past me and I believe 80 90% of people out there which makes you wonder as I have Whispers Of The Heart done so often with these types of books why he bothered explaining things at the start if the book wasn t written for a general audience It wasn t an issue of talking about specific brain regions that an expert wouldn t know it was his use of language something that was entirely avoidable if he just wrote it better or had a better editorFor example there was a sentence The reticular nucleus it is suspected acts to switch or gate the activities of the specific thalamic nuclei yieldingifferent patterns of expression of such sensory modalities as sight hearing and touch which could have been written The reticular nucleus is believed to be a switch or gate to The Dukes Gamble different ways to see hear or sense the world and would ve been shorter and a lot clearerThe last two chapters become very readable again and are a uite interesting summary of the book but leave out a lot ofetail I can only presume was gone into in etail in previous chapters He also leaves out things like experimental backing for the theory which he Says Is Done In Different Books Listed is one in ifferent books listed the bibliography which is also very well laid out The glossary is poorly explained as well as it always being cumbersome to have to go to the end of the book to read the out of context explanation of a term go to the end of the book to read the out of context explanation of a term could ve been just explained in textAs it was what I id understand was fascinating but there was far too little of those bits SighYou Chatsfields Ultimate Acquisition d think that by now I would know better Whyid I buy a book about consciousness by an eminent scientist and expect it to shed light on the uestion of how brain processing relates to subjective conscious experience Scientists are the last people to shed light on this uestion because they or at least most of them on t even understand the uestionWhy not Because it s not a scientific uestion at all but a philosophical one and I have yet to find a scientist who knows anything about philosophyI should warn you that the rest of this review will be written from the Point Of View Of A of view of a philosophy graduate who etests the way in which scientists all too often misconstrue and misrepresent a philosophical problem as if it were a scientific one Edelman s book is a Major Westhavens Unwilling Ward depressing example of thisA very clear signal of the problems we are in for appears as early as page 3 where Edelman refers to a uale and tells us that it is a subjective conscious state However uale is a technical philosophical term with a precise meaning itoesn t mean a conscious state it means the subjective content of a conscious state So for example if you re looking at something suare and green one of your ualia is a green suare not as Edelman wants you to believe the state of being conscious of a green suareNot content with misusing uale in one way on page 3 Edelman ecides to misuse it in an entirely ifferent way later on where he tells us that ualia or experiences of ualia are the same as How to Disappear distinctions Yet you can prove to yourself that for example experiencing colour is not the same asrawing Act Like You Know distinctions between colours simply by lying on your back and looking up at a cloudless blue sky you experience an expanse of blue that is your uale but since that is the only colour you are experiencing you are notrawing a istinction between that colour and any other So although it is true that istinguishing between colours is a part of the business of colour perception it is not the whole of it and the bit that has been missed is the subjective experiencing of the colour itself It is this subjective experiencing that is at the heart of the philosophical problem of consciousness The philosophical uestion essentially is this when we have understood everything that the brain Agewise does when we see colours have we then understood what the subjective experiencing of colour is and how it is created If so then there is nothing to say about colour perception than is given in an exhaustive account of the brain processing associated with colour perception if not then there is something The first view is reductionist the second non reductionist andespite Edelman s breezy assurance that reductionism is the only acceptable position the issue continues to be hotly ebated by real philosophers who actually know what words like uale mean and use them correctlyThe arguments we get from Edelman in support of reductionism are facile For example he ismisses the idea of a A Village with My Name: A Family History of China's Opening to the World disembodied consciousness on the grounds that there is no scientific evidence for it Now I am certainly not here to sell you the not. Scientific inuiry into the workings of the brain to formulate answers to the mind body uestions that intrigue every thinking personConcise and understandable the book explains pertinent findings of modern neuroscience andescribes how consciousness arises in complex brains Edelman explores the relation of consciousness to causation to evolution to the evelopment of. ,